Execute Queue (Earlier Release before WLS 9.0)
- Different classes of work were executed in different queues, based on priority and ordering requirements, and to avoid deadlocks.
- Each servlet or RMI request was associated with a dispatch policy that mapped to an execute queue.Requests without an explicit dispatch policy use the server-wide default execute queue.
- Execute queues are always global.
- Thread count should be set. Customers defined new thread pools and configured their size to avoid deadlocks and provide differentiated service. It is quite difficult to determine the exact number of threads needed in production to achieve optimal throughput and avoid deadlocks.
- all Work Managers share a common thread pool and a priority-based queue. The common thread pool changes its size automatically to maximize throughput.
- Work Managers become very lightweight, and customers can create Work Managers without worrying about the size of the thread pool.
- Thread dumps look much cleaner with fewer threads.
- Possible to specify different service-level agreements (SLAs) such as Fair Shares or Response-Time goals for the same servlet invocation depending on the user associated with the invocation. The requests are still associated with a dispatch policy but are mapped to a Work Manager instead of to an execute queue.
- Work Managers are always application scoped. Even Work Managers defined globally in the console are application scoped during runtime. This means that each application gets into own runtime instance that is distinct from others, but all of them share the same characteristics like fair-share goals.
- Thread count does not need to be set. WebLogic Server is self-tuned, dynamically adjusting the number of threads to avoid deadlocks and achieve optimal throughput subject to concurrency constraints. It also meets objectives for differentiated service. These objectives are stated as fair shares and response-time goals.
When to Use Work Managers
Following are guildelines to help you determine when you might want to use Work Managers to customize thread management:
- The default fair share is not sufficient. (This usually ocurrs in situations where one application needs to be given higher priority over another.)
- A response time goal is required.
- A minimum thread constraint needs to be specified to avoid server deadlock
Default Work Manager
To handle thread management and perform self-tuning, WebLogic Server implements a default Work Manager. This Work Manager is used by an application when no other Work Managers are specified in the application’s deployment descriptors.
In many situations, the default Work Manager may be sufficient for most application requirements. WebLogic Server’s thread-handling algorithms assign each application its own fair share by default. Applications are given equal priority for threads and are prevented from monopolizing them.
You can override the behavior of the default Work Manager by creating and configuring a global Work Manager called default. This allows you to control the default thread-handling behavior of WebLogic Server.
Global Work Managers
You can create Work Managers that are available to all applications and modules deployed on a server. Global Work Managers are created in the WebLogic Administration Console and are defined in config.xml.
An application uses a globally defined Work Manager as a template. Each application creates its own instance which handles the work associated with that application and separates that work from other applications. This separation is used to handle traffic directed to two applications which are using the same dispatch policy. Handling each application’s work separately, allows an application to be shut down without affecting the thread management of another application. Although each application implments its own Work Manager instance, the underlying components are shared.
Application-scoped Work Managers
In addition to globally-scoped Work Managers, you can also create Work Managers that are available only to a specific application or module. Work Managers can be specified in the following descriptors:
If you do not explicitly assign a Work Manager to an application, it uses the default Work Manager.
A method is assigned to a Work Manager, using the
element in the deployment descriptor. The can also identify a custom execute queue, for backward compatibility.
Work Managers and Execute Queues
This section discusses how to enable backward compatibility with Execute Queues and how to migrate applications from using Execute Queues to Work Managers.
Enabling Execute Queues
WebLogic Server, Version 8.1 implemented Execute Queues to handle thread management which allowed you to create thread-pools to determine how workload was handled. WebLogic Server still provides Execute Queues for backward compaitibility, primarily to facilitate application migration. However, new application development should utilize Work Managers to peform thread management more efficiently.
You can enable Execute Queues in the following ways:
- Using the command line option -Dweblogic.Use81StyleExecuteQueues=true
- Setting the Use81StyleExecuteQueues property via the Kernel MBean in config.xml.
When enabled, Work Managers are converted to Execute Queues based on the following rules:
- If the Work Manager implements a minimum or maximum threads constraint, then an Execute Queue is created with the same name as the Work Manager. The thread count of the Execute Queue is based on the value defined in the constraint.
- If the Work Manager does not implement any constraints, the the global default Execute Queue is used.